By Observatory of the Portuguese Language

A Global Language

A Global and Pluricentric Language The planetary image of the Earth; Lexical loans to other languages

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Ocean Car (2014) by Luca BoldriniObservatory of the Portuguese Language

When the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean held hands

The importance of the passage of Cabo das Tormentas, in 1488, which then became known as Cabo da Boa Esperança

The passage of Cabo das Tormentas by the Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu Dias. (1488) by Observatory of the Portuguese LanguageObservatory of the Portuguese Language

The passage of Cabo das Tormentas by the Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu Dias.

The Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu Dias, when folding the Cabo das Tormentas, in 1488, which then became known as Cabo da Boa Esperança, opened the way to Europe to the East.

55 years earlier, the ships of Chinese admiral Zheng He, in 1433, were in lands of present-day Tanzania.

The Portuguese moved from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean. What if the Chinese had moved from the Indian to the Atlantic?

Since then, with the passage from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean and the discovery of America, the planetary image of the Earth has changed.

Portuguese, pluricentric language (2020) by Observatory of the Portuguese LanguageObservatory of the Portuguese Language

Portuguese Language, a pluricentric language

With the creation of the IILP (International Institute of the Portuguese Language) and the CPLP, (Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries), Lusophony has been democratizing the management of the Portuguese language among all its member states.

Portuguese, pluricentric language (2020) by Observatory of the Portuguese LanguageObservatory of the Portuguese Language

What are the top 200 most spoken languages? (2020) by Ethnologue and OLPObservatory of the Portuguese Language

What are the 200 most spoken languages?

The languages listed in the 2019 edition of Ethnologue.

Ethnologue presents the present classification, identifying the number of native speakers and those who speak a language as a second language.

The number of native speakers of Portuguese was updated according to the calculation presented in this video.

Spanish and Portuguese taken together (2020) by Ethnologue and OLPObservatory of the Portuguese Language

Spanish and Portuguese, if considered together (since they have a high degree of intercomprehension), constitute the most spoken languages after Mandarin, but with a significantly higher global dispersion (entropy).

There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between speakers of both languages in relation to:

(1) text comprehension (since these speakers can use lexical inference strategies to help them understand the text globally);

(2) translation (since there is a high index of identical and non-identical cognate words);

(3) inference of lexical items (with the help of vocabulary and grammar strategies).

Lexical loans to Asian languages (2015) by Observatory of the Portuguese LanguageObservatory of the Portuguese Language

Lexical loans to Asian languages

Linguistic loan is the incorporation into the lexicon of a language of a term belonging to another language

Lexical loans to African languages (2015) by Observatory of the Portuguese LanguageObservatory of the Portuguese Language

Lexical loans to African languages

Linguistic loan is the incorporation into the lexicon of a language of a term belonging to another language

Swahili

Alternative names: Kisuaheli, Kiswahili

Population: 15,000,000 in Tanzania (2012)

Population in all countries: 15,437,390

Location: Tanzania, Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia

Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili

RONGA

Alternative names: Gironga, Rhonga, Shironga, Xironga

Population: 721,000 in Mozambique (2006)

Population in all countries: 722,000

Location: Maputo

Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga

Latin alphabet

CHANGANA

Alternative names: Shangana, Shitsonga, Thonga, Tonga, Xitsonga

Population: 2,280,000 in South Africa (2011 census)

Total population in all countries: 4,009,000

Location: Province of Mpumalanga

Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga

NHUNGUE

Alternative names: Chinyungwe, Chinyungwi, Cinyungwe, Nyongwe, Teta, Tete, Yungwe


Population: 439,000 (2006)


Location: Mozambique

Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena

Latin alphabet

MACUA

Alternative names: Makhuwa, Makhuwwa of Nampula, Makoane

Population: 3,090,000 (2006)

Location: Nampula and Zambézia Province; Niassa; Cabo Delgado

Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa

Writing: Latin alphabet

CHEWA

Alternative names: Chichewa, Chinyanja, Nyanja, Nyanja-Chewa

Population: 7,000,000 in Malawi (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001)

Population in all countries: 10,036,700

Location: Central and Southwest Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia

Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Chewa-Nyanja

Latin alphabet

YAO

Alternative names: Achawa, Adsawa, Adsoa, Ajawa, Ayao, Ayawa, Ayo, Chiyao, Ciyao, Djao, Haiao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Veiao, Wajao, Yawo

Population: 2,200,000 in Malawi

Population in all countries: 3, 116, 000

Location: Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania

Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao

Latin alphabet

TONGA

Alternative names: Chitonga, Plateau Tonga, Zambezi

Population: 1,330,000 in Zambia (2010 census)

Population in all countries: 1,467,000

Location: Zambia and Zimbabwe

Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga

Latin alphabet

QUIMBUNDO

Alternative names: Kimbundo, Kindongo, Loanda Mbundu, Loande, Luanda, Lunda, Mbundu

Population: 4,000,000 (World Factbook 2012)

Location: Cuanza Norte, Bengo and Malanje, areas adjacent to the provinces of Cuanza Sul, Uíge and Luanda

Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kimbundu

Latin alphabet

NHANECA


Nomes alternativos:Nyaneka, Lunyaneka, Olunyaneka

População:1.200.000 (Nyaneka Language Association 2012)

Localização: Sudoeste de Angola, Huíla e Namibe, Cunene e Benguela

Classificação:Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Estreito Bantu, Central, R, Umbundu

Alfabeto latino

Credits: Story

- National Coach Museum, Lisbon.
- Camões, I.P.
- Ethnologue (2019 edition)
- DALGADO, Sebastião Rodolfo, Influence of Portuguese vocabulary in Asian languages. Coimbra: university press, 1913.
- Prof. Dr. Ernesto d’Andrade, University of Lisbon.
- Accenture: Latin America – Europe – Africa Strategic Triangle / Reality and potential for expansion.
- Prof. Dr. Eunice R. HENRIQUES, State University of Campinas.


Author: Francisco Nuno Ramos, Observatory of the Portuguese Language

Credits: All media
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